|| Introduction. I. Greek and Greco-Roman ethics. Pre-Socratic ethics (550-430 B.C.) -- Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle (430-322 B.C.): Cynics and cyrenaics -- Post Aristotelian ethics, from 300 B.C. to (say) 300 A.D. -- II. Christianity and Medieval ethics. Pre-scholastic period to 1100 A.D.: Augustine (354-430 A.D.) ; Erigena (circ. 810-877 A.D.) -- Scholasticism grows and culminates (1100-1274 A.D.) -- Decay of medieval philosophy and transition to modern thought (circ. 1300-1600 A.D.).
III. Modern, chiefly English, ethics. Hobbes (1640 and 1651) -- Independent morality. Rational and jural (1651-1711) -- Psychological anti-egoism. Naturalness of disinterested benevolence and conscience (1711-1747) -- Butler (1726 and 1736). Dualism of governing principles. Divergence of conscience and benevolence -- Psychology predominant over ethics. Explanation of moral sentiments (1740-1759) -- Later intuitionism and common sense, from 1757 (Price) or 1788 (Reid) -- Fully developed Utilitarianism, from 1785 (Paley) to 1789 (Bentham).
General account of the subject. Ethics, the study of the ultimate good of man, distinguished from theology, the study of absolute good -- Ethics partially distinguished from politics -- Ethics and psychology -- Ethics: the study of duty or right conduct -- Ethics and jurisprudence. Origin of the moral faculty. Free will. Summary view of ethics.
Greek and Greco-Roman ethics. Pre-Socratic philosophy: Pythagoras; Heraclitus; Democritus -- The age of the Sophists -- Socrates -- The Socratic schools: Aristippus and the Cyrenaics ; Antisthenes and the cynics -- Plato -- Plato's theory of virtue -- Plato's view of pleasure; and its relation to human good -- Plato and Aristotle -- Aristotle's view of human wellbeing -- Aristotle's theory of virtue -- Aristotle's account of justice, friendship, and practical wisdom -- Plato and Aristotle on the voluntary -- Transition to stoicism: Zeno -- Stoicism. The passionless sage. Stoic freedom and determinism -- Stoic wisdom and nature -- Stoics and Hedonists -- Epicurus -- Later Greek philosophy. Academic scepticism and eclecticism -- Philosophy in Rome. Cicero -- Roman stoicism. Seneca; Epictetus; Marcus Aurelius -- Later Platonism and Neo-Platonism. Plutarch; Plotinus.
Christianity and Medieval ethics. The characteristics of Christian morality to be distinguished -- Christian and Jewish "Law of God" -- Christian and pagan inwardness. Faith; Love; Purity (in general sense) -- distinctive particulars of Christian morality. Obedience; Alienation from the world and the flesh; Patience; Beneficence; Christianity and wealth; Purity (in special sense); Humility; Religious duty; Christianity and Free will -- Development of opinion in early Christianity. Monastic morality -- Development of ethical doctrine. Augustine; Ambrose -- Ecclesiastical morality in the "Dark Ages" -- Scholastic ethics. Johannes Erigena; Anslem; Abelard; Scholastic method; Peter the Lombard -- Thomas Aquinas. Duns Scotus; Occam -- Medieval mysticism. Bonaventura; Eckhart -- Casuistry. The Jesuits -- The Reformation. Transition to modern ethical philosophy.
Modern, chiefly English, ethics. Modern ethics before Hobbes. Bacon; The law of nature; Grotius -- Hobbes -- The Cambridge moralists. Cudworth; More -- Morality as a code of nature. Cumberland; Locke -- Clarke -- Shaftesbury. Mandeville -- Butler. Wollaston -- Shaftesbury's doctrine developed and systematised. Hutcheson -- Moral sentiments and sympathy. Hume; Adam Smith -- Moral sentiments compounded by association. Hartley; Psychology and ethics -- Later intuitionism. Price -- Reid -- Dugald Stewart. Whewell; Controversy between intuitional and utilitarian schools -- Utilitarianism. Tucker; Paley -- Bentham and his school -- J.S. Mill. Associationism -- Current ethical controversies. Association and evolution; Evolutional ethics; Optimism and pessimism; Transcendentalism; T.H. Green -- Free will. Reid on free will; Determinist ethics -- French influence on English ethics. Helvetius; Comte -- German influence on English ethics. Kant; Post-Kantian ethics; Hegel; German pessimism; Schopenhauer; Hartmann.